The Jubilee Line will be the first to benefit, with the eastern half to get full mobile connectivity on both the platforms and the tunnels from March next year, the network announced on Friday.
The trial section will stretch from Westminster to Canning Town – excluding London Bridge and Waterloo stations – and will also cover ticket halls and corridors.
London Bridge and Waterloo stations are due to become fully 4G enabled later during 2020 subject to final approval, TfL said. There are already 260 wifi-enabled stations on the London Underground and on TfL rail services.
Mayor of London Sadiq Khan said: “This is a really important step for the millions of people who use the Tube each year.
“Introducing 4G and, in the future, 5G will help Londoners and visitors keep in touch and get the latest travel information while on the go.
“London is the best place to live, visit and work – and projects like this will help make it even better.”
Shashi Verma, chief technology officer at TfL, said: “The London Underground network is an incredibly challenging environment in which to deliver technological improvements, but we are now well on the path to delivering mobile connectivity within our stations and tunnels.
“We have begun the complex work to allow our customers to be able to get phone reception within our tunnels from March 2020, with more stations and lines coming online during the coming years.”
The entire project is expected to require 2,000 kilometres of cabling with engineers working week-night shifts to minimises disruption to passengers.