With between 16,000 and 20,000 pieces being tracked orbiting Eart, the RemoveDebris mission is hoping to address the issue of debris in space left over by past rockets and other deployments.
Airbus carried out the experiment last Friday, where a harpoon pierces through the skin of a sample piece of debris being dangled on a boom at about one and a half metres away from the spacecraft. Once hit, a barb is deployed on the debris to secure it.
The harpoon is still a number of years away from operational use, but the experiment is a major step towards cleaning up space junk, as the number of spacecraft launches continue to increase.
Astronaut Tim Peake previously revealed the damage that orbital junk can cause spacecraft, when he shared an image of a chipped window panel on board the International Space Station in 2016.
It is believed that something as small as a paint chip could have caused the damage, as it hurtled towards the ISS. When in full operation, scientists aim to make the harpoon fire at debris up to 30 metres away.
Engineers back on Earth are still trying to work out how the system can be used to target moving objects.
The harpoon, which is a joint initiative including British efforts from Airbus, the University of Surrey and the Surrey Satellite Technology firm, is capable of travelling at 20 metres per second.
A previous RemoveDebris experiment demonstrated how a net could be used to catch potentially dangerous pieces of rubbish orbiting the Earth.
Next, the group are expected to test the drag sail part of the test on March 12.